Controlling high blood pressure with managed sodium intake
The body needs a small amount of sodium to function, but most Americans consume too much sodium. High sodium consumption can raise blood pressure, and high blood pressure is a major risk factor for heart disease and stroke.1 Heart disease and stroke are the nation’s first and fifth leading causes of death.2
Salt and High Blood Pressure
- Research shows a strong dose-dependent relationship between consuming too much salt and raised levels of blood pressure.1
- When salt intake is reduced, blood pressure begins falling within weeks on average.3
- Populations who consume diets low in salt do not experience the increase in blood pressure with age that is seen in most Western countries.1
- Reducing sodium intake lowers blood pressure, with greater effects among people with hypertension.4*
Is it Salt, or is it Sodium?
- Sodium chloride is the chemical name for salt.1
- The words salt and sodium are not exactly the same, yet these words are often used interchangeably. For example, the Nutrition Facts Panel uses “sodium,” while the front of the package may say “no salt added” or “unsalted.”5
- Ninety percent of the sodium we consume is in the form of salt.1
Sodium Consumption and Sodium in Our Food Supply
- We all need a small amount of sodium to keep our bodies working properly.1
- The 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that Americans consume less than 2,300 milligrams (mg) of sodium each day as part of a healthy eating pattern.6
- About 90% of Americans 2 years old or older consume too much sodium.7
- The average daily sodium intake for Americans 2 years old or older is more than 3,400 mg.8
- Americans are consuming substantially more sodium than in the 1970s. Since 2010, some manufacturers have reduced sodium in some foods, and the amount of sodium consumed has decreased slightly in some groups of people.7,9
- More than 70% of sodium consumed is from processed and restaurant foods. Only a small portion of sodium or salt is used in cooking or added at the table.10
- Because sodium is already in processed and restaurant foods when they are purchased, reducing personal sodium intake can be hard, even for motivated people.11
- Sodium content can vary across the same types of foods by brand. For example, a slice of frozen cheese pizza can have between 370 mg and 730 mg of sodium; a cheeseburger from a fast food restaurant can have between 710 mg and 1,690 mg.12
- Sodium information currently is not always readily available for restaurant or prepared foods and can be hard for the consumer to estimate.
Reducing Sodium and Reducing Cardiovascular Disease Burden
- Lowering high blood pressure reduces the risk of heart disease and stroke.13 Adults with prehypertension and hypertension especially
benefit from lowering their blood pressure.6*†
- If manufacturers gradually reduced the amount of sodium in processed and prepared foods, public consumption of sodium could be reduced to safer levels with little or no change in behavior on the part of the individual consumer.14
- Sodium intake from processed and restaurant foods contributes to high rates of high blood pressure, heart attack, and stroke. Because nearly 400,000 deaths each year are attributed to high blood pressure, reducing sodium intake could prevent thousands of deaths annually.15
- Reducing average population sodium intake to 2,300 mg per day may save $18 billion in health care dollars and reduce cases of high
blood pressure by 11 million annually.16
- Sodium reduction continues to be an effective and safe strategy to lower blood pressure.3,11,17,18
- Lowering blood pressure reduces and prevents heart attacks and stroke.19
* Hypertension is having blood pressure that is consistently high, defined by systolic blood pressure of 140 mm Hg or higher and diastolic blood pressure of 90 mm Hg or higher.
† Prehypertension is systolic blood pressure that is 120 to 139 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure that is 80 to 89 mm Hg.
- Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium Chloride, and Sulfate. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2004.
- Xu J, Murphy SL, Kochanek KD, Arias E. Mortality in the United States, 2015. NCHS data brief, no. 267. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics; 2016.
- He FJ, Li J, MacGregor GA. Effect of longer-term modest salt reduction on blood pressure. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;(4):CD004937.
- Eckel RH, Jakicic JM, Ard JD, et al. 2013 AHA/ACC guideline on lifestyle management to reduce cardiovascular risk: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2014;129:S76–S99.
- U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Sodium in Your Diet: Use the Nutrition Facts Label and Reduce Your Intake. 2016. Accessed August 31, 2017.
- U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, U.S. Department of Agriculture. 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. 2015. Accessed August 31, 2017.
- Jackson SL, Coleman King SM, Zhao L, Cogswell ME. Prevalence of sodium intake in the United States. MMWR. 2016;64:1394–1397.
- U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, U.S. Department of Agriculture. What We Eat in America. NHANES 2013–2014, Table 37. 2017. Accessed August 31, 2017.
- Briefel R, Johnson C. Secular trends in dietary intake in the United States. Annu Rev Nutr. 2004;24:401–431.
- Harnack LI, Cogswell ME, Shikany JM, et al. Sources of sodium in U.S. adults from 3 geographic regions. Circulation. 2017;135:1775–1783.
- Adler AJ, Taylor F, Martin N, Gottlieb S, Taylor RS, Ebrahim S. Reduced dietary salt for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;(12):CD009217.
- U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Nutrient Data Laboratory. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference. Release 28. Version Current: September 2015, slightly revised May 2016. Accessed August 31, 2017.
- American Heart Association. Changes You Can Make to Manage High Blood Pressure. 2017. Accessed August 31, 2017.
- Institute of Medicine. Strategies to Reduce Sodium Intake in the United States. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2010.
- Danaei G, Ding EL, Mozaffarian D, et al. The preventable causes of death in the United States: comparative risk assessment of dietary, lifestyle, and metabolic risk factors. PLoS Med. 2009;6(4):e1000058. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1000058.
- Palar K, Sturm R. Potential societal savings from reduced sodium consumption in the U.S. adult population. Am J Health Promot. 2009;24(1):49–57.
- Aburto NJ, Ziolkovska A, Hooper L, Elliot P, Cappuccio FP, Meerpohl JJ. Effect of lower sodium intake on health: Systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2013;346:f1326.
- Aburto NJ, Das S. Effect of Reduced Sodium Intake on Blood Pressure, Renal Function, Blood Lipids and Other Potential Adverse Effects. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2012.
- Cogswell ME, Mugavero K, Bowman BA, Frieden TR. Dietary sodium and cardiovascular disease risk- measurement matters. N Engl J Med. 2016;375:580–586.
|Source: Sodium Fact Sheet|